4. How to construct a good EBVM question?

4.4. O – Outcome by which 'I' will be compared with 'C'

4.4 O – Outcome by which 'I' will be compared with 'C'

Choosing a specific desired outcome is a key part of formulating an evidence-based question about a patient.

This ensures you will Acquire, Appraise and Apply evidence pertaining to the specific outcome of interest for you and your individual patient.

Table 4: Examples of questions and outcomes


Which diet is best to feed cats with chronic renal disease?

Survival time

Which diagnostic test is most reliable for diagnosing fascioliasis in lactating dairy cattle?

Predictive values

Does sex affect survival in flat-coat retrievers with cutaneous lymphoma?

Average life expectancy

Are the risks of inhalational induction of general anaesthesia higher compared to injectable induction ferrets under different protocols?

Mortality rate

Are cardiac disorders in Welsh Section A mountain ponies more prevalent than other breeds?

Prevalence of cardiac disorders